Advertisement
THE NIBBLE (TM) - Great Finds for Foodies (tm)
Twitter RSS feed [?]













Shropshire Blue CheeseThe paste of a cheese refers to the portion inside the rind. This Shropshire Blue cheese, available at McKenzieLtd.com, has a particularly beautiful paste, a light orange with veins of blue.
MENU

 

 

Cheese

Category Main Page
Articles & Reviews

 

   

Cheese-Butter-Yogurt

Category Main Page
Articles & Reviews

 

   

Main Nibbles

Main Page
Articles & Reviews Of Foods From A To Z

  

 

Product Reviews

Main Page
Food, Beverages, Books,
News & More

   

 

   

 

 

May 2005
Updated January 2010

Product Reviews / Main Nibbles / Cheese-Butter-Yogurt

Cheese Glossary

Types Of Cheese, Terms & Definitions Every Cheese Lover Should Know

Page 8: Cheese Terms Beginning With O & P

 

This is Page 8 of a 12-page glossary. Click on the letters below to find terms of interest. When you’re finished with cheese, visit our 60+ other food glossaries.

Click on a letter to get to the appropriate glossary page.

a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i  j  k  l  m  n  o  p  q  r  s  t  u  v  w  x  y  z

This glossary is protected by copyright and cannot be reproduced in whole or part.

 

OPEN
A texture description referring to a cheese which contains openings and holes in its body. It is the opposite of close. See also eyes.

PANIR or PANEER

Panir is an Indian fresh curd cheese that looks like ricotta, although it is very different and actually similar to the Latin American queso blanco. It is used in sweet and savory dishes. All cheese starts off by the addition of a coagulant (curdling agent) to milk that has been brought to a boiling point. With many cheeses, an enzyme, rennet, is used to coagulate the milk proteins, but the whey proteins (albuminous proteins) don’t coagulate. They are drained, and can be used to make ricotta. Panir is made by adding an acid reagent to the milk (vinegar, lemon juice, yogurt, citric acid or cultured buttermilk) rather than rennet. When the milk curdles, both the milk proteins and the whey proteins coagulate.

  Paneer
Cooked cubes of panird. Photo courtesy of
Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board.

The cheese is usually pressed until firm, and, like ricotta, can be eaten fresh and raw. But unlike ricotta, panir holds its shape and can also be grilled, pan-fried, barbecued or deep-fried.

PARAFFIN

Many cheeses, particularly those destined for export markets, are coated with a paraffin wax to protect the cheese. Edam, covered in bright red wax, is probably the best known.

PARMIGIANO REGGIANO or PARMESAN CHEESE

Parmigiano-Reggiano is a hard-textured cheese that is cooked but not pressed. It has been described by connoisseurs as the King of Cheeses (and wine collectors enjoy it with big wines like Barolos and Barbarescos). It is made from raw cow’s milk that is partially skimmed by gravity. Traditionally, cows have to be fed only on grass or hay. The cheese is aged an average of two years. The name is trademarked, and in Italy there is a legal exclusive control exercised by the Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese Consorzio over its production and sales.

  Parmegiano Reggiano
Aging wheels of Parmigiano Reggiano. Photo courtesy of Wikipedia.org.

Each wheel of cheese must meet strict criteria early in the aging process, when the cheese is still soft and creamy, to merit the Consorzio’s official seal and be placed in storage for aging. Cheese which fails to meet these criteria is removed. The whey, which is a by-product of cheese making, is fed to the pigs that produce Prosciutto di Parma. Parmigiano-Reggiano is a D.O.P. protected trade name. Parmigiano-style cheeses that are made outside of the Emilia-Romagna and Lombardy regions of Italy, and outside the jurisdiction of the Consorzio, anywhere in the world, are called Parmesan. Read more about Parmigiano-Reggiano.

 

PASTA FILATA CHEESES

Pasta filata, or spun paste, refers to a family of cheeses, mostly Italian, that are cooked and kneaded, or “spun.” The cheeses range from very fresh to hard grating cheeses, and include mozzarella, provolone and scamorza.

  Mozzarella
Mozzarella being “spun.” Photo courtesy of Wisconsin milk Marketing Board.

PASTE or PÂTÉ

The interior body (non-rind portion) of the cheese. It is described by its texture, density, and color. When milk is too low in beta carotene, producing pale cheese, the vegetable dye annatto can be added to the curds to give the paste more color.

Cowgirl Creamery’s Mt. Tam has a light gold, semisoft paste with eyes.

  Mt. Tam Cheese

PASTEURIZATION

Pasteurization kills all bacteria in milk—beneficial as well as harmful bacteria. Because the beneficial bacteria add flavor to the cheese, many cheesemakers prefer to use raw milk. However, in the U.S., due to health concerns, raw milk cheeses must be aged for 60 days so any harmful bacteria will be killed. In pasteurization, the milk is heat treated to a specified temperature for a specified time: 145°F for 15 minutes (heat treatment) or 185°F for 15 seconds (flash pasteurization). The heat kills off all the microbial life in the milk—bad as well as good bacteria—making a clean medium for the starter culture. However, pasteurization also kills many of the natural enzymes in the milk which create flavor complexity, which is why many connoisseurs prefer raw milk cheeses—and cheesemakers prefer to make them. See also raw milk cheeses.

  Straus Organic Milk
Pasteurized milk from Straus Farms, one of America’s finest family dairies and the first all-organic dairy. They still sell milk the old-fashioned way: not homogenized, so the cream floats to the top (“cream top”).

PROTECTED DESIGNATION OF ORIGIN or PDO
PDO LogoA trademark issued by the European Union that guarantees that a product is produced, prepared and processed in a designated geographical area, according to specified practices. Purchasing a PDO cheese guarantees a consistent product experience and an established standard of excellence.


PENICILLIUM
See mold.

PERSILLE or FROMAGE À PÂTE PERSILLE
A French term for a blue-veined cheese (blue cheese). It is so named because the blue veins resemble parsley (persille in French).

PIQUANT
A descriptive term for a sharp-tasting cheese.

PRESSED, UNCOOKED CHEESES

One of the largest groups of cheeses, pressed, uncooked cheeses comprise hard and semi-hard cheeses. Thus, the pastes are generally semi-firm to firm.  The most commonly recognized names in this category are Cheddar and Colby in hard cheese and Double-Gloucester, Edam and Gouda in semi-hard cheese. The curds are pressed to dispel the maximum amount of whey and lengthen the cheeses’ shelf life, since, before refrigeration and easy transport, the cheese needed to be sturdy enough to travel to market.

  Cheddar
Cheddar is an example of a pressed, uncooked cheese. This English Tufton Cheddar is available at iGourmet.

PROCESSED CHEESES

These are cheese by-products made from a combination of natural cheese and added ingredients, such as stabilizers, emulsifiers and flavor enhancers. The objective is not to create artisan cheese, but a consistent and shelf-stable product for mass market consumption. Cheeses in this category include American cheese, processed cheese spreads and “cheese flavored” spreads. Velveeta, a popular product for nachos, doesn’t even have enough cheese by-product to quality as a processed cheese: It is a “cheese food.”

  Processed Cheese
American cheese photo
courtesy of BuyCheeses.com.


PRONOUNCED
A descriptive term for a cheese’s aroma or flavor.

PROVOLONE

A spun cheese of the Italian pasta filata group, which also includes mozzarella and scamorza. It is often found on antipasto plates. Provolone, meaning large provola, is a semi-hard cow’s milk cheese that varies in flavor from mild Provolone Dolce to aged, sharp Provolone Piccante. Provolone is made in unusual shapes. the most common is the salame shape shown at right, but it is also made in the shape of a watermelon, bottle, pear (mandarino) and cone.

  Provolone
Provolone. Photo courtesy Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board.


Continue To Page 9: Terms Beginning With Q & R

Return To The article Index Above

 

© Copyright 2005-2014 Lifestyle Direct, Inc. All rights reserved. Some material copyright Murray’s Cheese. Images are the copyright of their respective owners.

 



About Us
Contact Us
Legal
Privacy Policy
Advertise
Media Center
Manufacturers & Retailers
Subscribe
Interact